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Module 6 Assignments and Answers

Assignments and Answers


It is required that you design a national roll plan. The content of the plan should include:

  • strategies and ideas on how to achieve this plan

  • how you intend to get your participants

  • qualifying participants assessment criteria

  • duration of the program

  • cost of training or participation fee

  • number of trainers needed and their cost

  • number of modules to be included in your training

  • any sponsorship opportunities

  • how you intend to sustain further trainings

Group Exercise

In groups of 4, please read the Case Study at 6.2.2 carefully. Discuss the Case study based on the core questions discussed under FLOSS training business opportunities.

Rules: Please state (3 maximum) points briefly how you would have approached the same training opportunities and any two training opportunities you would like to explore as a group of trainers.

1 Objectives and vision statement

The basic objectives of the national roll-out training are:

  • To raise FOSS awareness in the Tanzanian Community

  • To develop sustainable FOSS-based IT business

  • To strengthen FOSS communities in Tanzania

The vision is to builds capacities in African small and medium IT enterprises to make FOSS based business. It aims to encourage the growth of African IT industries.

2 Participants

As the objective of the training is focusing on FOSS business models, the training will call for participants from IT companies wishing to diversify their business, start-up IT entrepreneurs, local FOSS communities, educators and graduates in IT related subjects as well as other participants interested in FOSS business models in Tanzania.

A call for participants will therefore be advertised through different marketing strategies. Different media through which this course can get very good publicity in Tanzania, are: the newspapers, e-mail to target groups and other prospective IT companies. Other strategies will be development of promotional materials such as posters and place them in high traffic areas.

The Training will be delivered in a Workshop style to allow maximum interaction and discussions. The target is to train 20 participants each quarter (three months) and therefore about 80 participants per year. Initial trainings will be concentrated in regional towns and cities where IT infrastructure is well established

It is expected that all participants will be selected from those who have at least knowledge of basic computers, experience in FOSS or potential FOSS collaborator to allow uniform workshop interactions.

3. Output

The target is to achieve the set objectives; so we can expect the Training outcome to be:

  1. Awareness on FOSS causes more people to demand for FOSS applications and solutions and as such provide opportunities for any FOSS businesses to flourish

  2. Growth of a FOSS Community, which comes with it, more FOSS minds, students, trainers, and advocacy and so on.

  3. With these and more benefits, it is possible to plan an annual FOSS event, such as FOSS Clinics, Free FOSS Training, FOSS certification and so on.

4 The Training Content

The training shall consider the local conditions and environment. It will comprise three modules, namely Module 1, Module 2 and any one of the other modules as listed below:

Module 1: Introduction to emerging FOSS business models

Module 2: African business models: Case studies

Module 3: Communicating FOSS

Module 4: Introduction to General business skills

Module 5: FOSS specific business knowledge and skills

Module 6: FOSS Training

Module 7: E-learning Platform

The selection of the modules will depend on the mission of the target groups and their levels of understanding. The content materials will be availed to the participants at least one week before the workshop.

5 Resource persons (Trainers)

As a FOSS ToT member I will be the principal trainer. Supporting trainers will be sourced from within FOSS related institutions and FOSS - ToT Alumni. Shortfall of trainers will be requested from InWent and FOSSFA. Qualified trainers will need to have knowledge of FOSS, proven training Experience and proven excellence in their field of profession

6 Time Schedules and Venues

A workshop session will be done for a period of 5 days (not less than 40 hours). This time is just long enough for participants to understand the materials content and practices of the FOSS modules without being bored.

Information on the workshop venue, schedules for starting and end times and dates for the workshop sessions will be set and communicated to participants at least four weeks in advance. Arrangements for hotel accommodation will arranged for participants in need. The workshop organization will establish a support through help desk for post training questions, accommodations reservations, training registrations etc.

7 Fees and Costs

Participants shall contribute an XX for the workshop. Trainers would be paid XX per day.

8 Sponsorship & Marketing

InWent and FOSSFA have promised funding and support, It is possible to look for Local Support for this Training workshop, especially from Companies and institutions that will likely benefit from adding their name and profile to such an event. So a workshop prospectus together with a call for support and sponsorship would go a long way in acquiring some support. This needs to be done in time.

9 Media

Media Coverage is crucial for such a workshop and this would help to inform a larger group of people about the Workshop. A Newspaper article, a phone in Radio announcement, a community announcement could all add to the buzz.

10 Course ware evaluation

Evaluation forms for the course ware and trainers will be prepared and availed to the participants after every module. At closing of the workshop there will be general discussion on the evaluation results and process to ways for improvement. This will also give opportunity to discuss issues that are of interest or were omitted for future improvements.


11 Budget






TOTAL / 5 days




Participation fee



Total Income




Venue with computers









Transport for ppts






Trainers fees



Advertising and marketing



Total Expenditure

Contingencies / accidentals 10%




Aflent’s national roll out plan will focus on providing training initially to university students, BEE entrepreneurs and other established black businesses in South Africa. The aim is to empower these groups with FLOSS for two major reasons:

  1. Impart skills to use FLOSS applications to enable and capacitate internal business processes in order to gain competitive advantage

  2. To train the groups on how to move into FLOSS-based businesses (FLOSS consultancy and training)


The key to achieving successful trainings lie in the ability to attract attention of participants, offering a highly accredited and internationally recognised African FOSS Business Model course establish and maintain continuous online learning and networking platform for trainees. The trainings will take the form of a strategy-driven process.

  1. Conduct a preliminary FLOSS workshop to market the concept and the training.

  2. Pitch for short course raining deals with local institutions and universities.

  3. Clear the issue of certification and accreditation of the course.

  4. Develop a solid sustainability model.

Getting participants

Participants will be sourced from the corporate industry, universities, NGOs and the public sector including technologists in government departments.

  • Marketing the FOSS concept

  • Marketing the FOSS training

  • Networking with colleagues, former workmates and clients interested in Open

Participants’ assessment criteria

  1. Attitude

  2. Eagerness to learn

  3. Reasons why participants want to get the training

  4. Skills

  • A qualification in IT and/ or business

  • Training skills

  • Previous advocacy work

  • Knowledge

  • Basic understanding of FOSS and/or IT’s role in business

Duration of the program

2 weeks for 2 months

Cost of training or participation fee

Cost per individual will be XX  excluding VAT

Trainers needed and their cost

As a certified trainer I will choose a number of modules 2 and 4. The remainder of the modules will be delivered by local and regional trainers subject to their availability. In total four trainers are required for the course. Cost of the trainers will be determined by FOSSFA and InWent.

Estimated rate per trainer per module will be obtained from the FOSSFA/InWent.

Modules to be included in your training

Provisionally all modules are to be included:

  1. Introduction to emerging FLOSS Business Models

  2. African Business Models Case Studies

  3. Communicating FLOSS

  4. Business Skills

  5. FLOSS Business Knowledge and Skills

  6. FLOSS Training Business


  • Established FLOSS companies (Sun Microsystems)

  • First National Bank

  • IT companies

  • Government departments (DST, SITA, Local Councils)

Sustainability Model

The training will be offered as a short course through The Business Place and Monash and North West University.

TEST Module 6
1. Below are some of the winning combinations of an "ideal" FLOSS trainer. Which one is not? Ability to engage participants and relate content to their situation.
  1. Winning personality and ability to communicate.
  2. Practical experience in FLOSS applications.
  3. Ability to program in Java and Visual Basics
2. Which one of the following is not one of the three types of training interventions for FLOSS Trainers discussed in module 6.1?
  1. Those who have the technical knowledge of FLOSS packages and have been using certain packages, but have not conducted any training of any nature.
  2. Those who have the knowledge and skills on how to conduct ICT training for adults which they might have acquired through self-learning or having had attended a course, but have not conducted any FLOSS training. Instead, they have conducted training in proprietary software.
  3. Those who have no jobs and they want to occupy themselves
  4. Those who have conducted FLOSS training courses and have the knowledge and skill on how to conduct training, but have not trained other trainers
3. Why is it important that trainers use the software they will be training?
  1. Helps them become conversant with features and functionalities that the software provides and can transmit this knowledge to their trainees.
  2. Helps them boast of the knowledge they have about the software
  3. Helps them deliver the training within the shortest time possible
  4. Helps them be liked by the trainees
4. Trainers should see training as a stage production: which of the following is not part of the stage production aspects?
  1. There is the audience (participants).
  2. There is a stage (training room).
  3. The performance by the actor (trainer conducting the course).
  4. The performance by the audience (Shouting)
5. Selection of candidates for FLOSS training can be done using the following criteria exceptelection of candidates for FLOSS training can be done using the following criteria except.....................

6. Below are some of FLOSS certification recognisable in many countries. Which one is not very recognizable when it comes to FLOSS training?

7. Below is a list of some of the steps involved in the design of a course/curriculum. Which one is weak compared to the others in the list?

8. Why should the development of FLOSS training content take cognisance of the commercial world for proprietary software?

9. The Diverger is described by the following except:

10. The Converger is described by the following except:


Question 1 : Who is termed "father of the GNU Project"

  1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum

  2. Richard Stallman

  3. Linus Torvalds

  4. Bill Gates

Question 2 : Why is it important that trainers use the software they will be training?

  1. Helps them be liked by the trainees.

  2. Helps them become conversant with features and functionalities that the software provides and can transmit this knowledge to their trainees.

  3. Helps them boast of the knowledge they have about the software

  4. Helps them deliver the training within the shortest time possible

    Question 3 : Which benefit/limitation applies to Open standards?

  5. Inefficient use of existing resources

  6. Lack Flexibility

  7. Fewer options and thus less opportunities to optimise

  8. Lower and manageable risk

    Question 4 : Which of the following definition best describe Open Content ?

  9. Describes content that has been put at a pool for all to access just for reading but not for any modification

  10. Describes any kind of creative work published in a format that explicitly does not allow copying and modifying of its information by anyone, exclusively by a closed organization, firm or individual

  11. Describes any kind of creative work published in a format that explicitly allows copying and modifying of its information by anyone, not exclusively by a closed organization, firm or individual

  12. Describes open content for only business community

Question 5 : How are FOSS brand names protected?

  1. Through licenses such as GPL3

  2. By an online community surveillance scheme

  3. By placing product keys on application

  4. FOSS brands are never protected and are open for use by anyone

Question 6 : How effectively do you manage your leads?

  1. I contact every lead and stay in contact until they are mine or I discard them.

  2. I am following up on enough leads to achieve the level of production I want but there are always more leads that are not followed up on.

  3. There are many leads that I don't follow up on or lose after the first contact

  4. Only responds to their calls

Question 7 : How strong is your service to your clients?

  1. I will ask for their request only

  2. I maintain good contact with my clients until an offer is accepted and then I lose touch.

  3. My sellers call me before I call them, my buyers often leave me, and I am embarrassed to call after closing because I've lost touch.

  4. I speak to my listed sellers, my pending clients, and my motivated buyers at least weekly on schedule.

Question 8 : Which of the following is an important strategic decision a company needs to make

  1. Business Location

  2. Which staff to employ

  3. Name of the Comapany

  4. Choosing your clients and market

Question 9 : What are the obstacles, if any, you might perceive in people not wanting to attend FLOSS training courses?

  1. Lack of knowledge on open source software

  2. Poor marketing by FLOSS trainers

  3. Most enterprises still do not use FLOSS tools and services

  4. Over pricing of training fees

Question 10 : Given that your cash flow projection of your FOSS business indicates a negative cash flow six months down the line, the FIRST remedy would be to:

  1. Bring your cash flow projection back into "positive" by increasing sales, cutting costs and obtaining financing.

  2. Attempt to sell the business.

  3. Begin looking for alterative business opportunities.

  4. Create a new cash flow statement

Question 11 : In doing business branding is considered a very important undertaking. What is brand names are primarily used to achieve

  1. Show consumers you own the product.

  2. Spice up the image of a product.

  3. To help identify your product.

  4. To help consumers select a product/service.

Question 12 : Which of the following statements is incorrect?

  1. Public Relations is the act of managing information flow between an organization and the public

  2. Media Relations refers to way the media manages its relationships with the general public in order to safe guard its reputati

  3. Public Relation may consist of activities an organization may involve itself in with the intention of promoting a positive relationship or image with its customers or indeed any members of the public

  4. Public Relation could lend organization important media publicity at low or no costs at all

Question 13 : Some of the major problems encountered by many FOSS companies in Africa are

  1. Finding Free and Open Source Software that fit for their businesses

  2. Skilled work force that is willing to work for a low salary

  3. Aquisition of capital for investment

  4. Finding clients for their products

  • 4

  • 2 and 3

  • 2,3 and 4

  • 4

Question 14 : Selection of candidates for FLOSS training can be done using the following criteria except

  1. Role/function in organization

  2. Educational background

  3. Identified need

  4. Nepotism

Question 15 : When you are providing FOSS/FLOSS soultions, you are paid for ...

  1. Business goodwill

  2. Qualification

  3. Service

  4. Product

Question 16 : Initiating a new business involves considerable risk, as well as an effort to overcome all the ......... against innovative ideas.

  1. Inertia

  2. Pressure

  3. Attitude

  4. Protest

Question 17 : Defining a revenue model for your FOSS business will help you to do the following except

  1. Stay focused on a niche and a target audience

  2. Give you a foundation for your product or service development plans

  3. Give you a good basis for accounting

  4. Provide a foundation for your marketing plans

Question 18 : Why is it important to have course materials developed using indigenous languages?

  1. To attract more audience/participation from local communities

  2. To compete with course materials in foreign languages

  3. To raise money during translation processes

  4. To adhere to government policies


Question 19 : As a trainer, one should prepare in three key areas, which ones are they?

Hint: This is a multiple answer question!

  1. Youeself

  2. The classroom

  3. Fighting

  4. The content

Question 20 : One way to create FLOSS market is by persuading existing ICT users. Which one of the following statements misrepresents the act of persuasion?

  1. Showing what others are doing

  2. Showing frightening accounts of users of rival products, services

  3. Showing user generated views

  4. Showing scarcity of goods or services


Question 21 : What do advocacy initiatives ultimately try to achieve?

  1. Agitate public resentment against government

  2. Influence customer choices

  3. Resolve political differences

  4. Policy change


Question 22 : What is Network effects?

  1. The phenomenon that describes how Products in a network increase in value to users as the number of users decreases

  2. The phenomenon that describes how Products in a network increase in value to users as the number of users increases

  3. The phenomenon that describes how Products in a network decrease in value to users as the number of users increases

Question 23 : In business a Marketing Mix consists of:

  1. Product, Price, Place, Promotion

  2. People, Products, Price, Place

  3. Price, Promotion, Advertising, Place

  4. Process, People, Physical Evidence, Product

Question 24 : All free software is freeware and all freeware is free software.

  1. True

  2. False

Question 25 : S.W.O.T analysis is predominantly used to:

  1. Determine the sales of an organisation.

  2. Determine the capabilities of the organisation.

  3. Assess whether an organisation should

  4. Determine whether new products work or not.

Question 26 : For this question please match the software to the appropriate group

  1. Internet Browser A. Open Office - Impress

  2. Apache B. World Processor

  3. Open Office – Writer C. Firefox

  4. Presentation

Question 27 : Which of the following is not a commnon FOSS business model in Africa?

  • FOSS Training

  • Consultancy

  • System Software Development

  • Web Solution Providers

Question 28 : In Business, the term Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) refer to

  • License fees,installation cost and maintenance cost.

  • Training cost

  • Operation cost

  • Cost of your fixed Assets

Question 29 : GPL compatible free software license is

  • A permissive non-copyleft free software license

  • A free software license, and a copyright license

  • A free software license, and a copyleft license

  • None of the above


Question 30 : Who solves bugs/errors in open source software

  1. Users

  2. Developers

  3. All of the above

  4. None of the above

Question 31 : The business planning process sometimes fails because

  1. The planning process is poorly managed

  1. Plans are impractical

  1. Planners lack the appropriate skills

  1. Lack of government support

  • 1 only

  • 1 and 2 only

  • 1,2 and 3 only

  • 1,2,3 and 4

Question 32 : What is product branding?

  • Garnishing company logo on your products and services

  • Is the proprietary visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image that you associate with a Company or a product

  • Constantly displaying and associating your products with other popular products

  • An appealing slogan often used to accompany your product advertisement

Question 33 : What are the two licenses available for course material licensing?

  1. CISCO License and Ubuntu License

  2. OpenICDL license and Linux Professional Institute Certification License

  3. Creative Commons and GNU Free Documentation License

  4. Junior Level Linux Professional and GNU Free Documentation License

Question 34 : In undertaking a FOSS business one of your source of information is secondary data. What is secondary datat?

  1. Data collected from personal interviews.

  2. Data taken from questionnaires.

  3. Data collected from published materials.

  4. Data collected from suppliers.

Question 35 : Join different FLOSS/FOSS communities both physical and online has a basic advantage. Which of the following is true

  1. It is place where you can showoff your skill

  2. There is a wealth of skills and knowledge

  3. Only those who are knowledgeable join

  4. The community in only online

Question 36 : The following are revenue streams for most FOSS Businesses in Africa except

  1. Training

  2. After Sale Support

  3. Conducting Research

  4. Adverting

Question 37 : What is the most common reason why people start new businesses?

  1. To get rich d. To work fewer hours

  2. Because they don’t want to work for someone else

  3. Because they have no other alternative

  4. To work fewer hours

Question 38 : As part of the social responsibility of most open source business discussed in Africa do the following except

  1. Create websites for SME free of charges

  2. Donate money to Open Source Software projects and communities

  3. Send back modifications of a source code to foss communities

  4. Undertake seminars to show people how to copy any software

Question 39 : The concept of innovation and newness is now an ......... part of entrepreneurship.

  1. Intangible

  2. Integral

  3. Integrated

  4. Intelligible

Question 40 : Which of the following are normally included in Open Educational Resources

  1. Learning content: full courses, course materials, content modules, learning objects, collections, and journals.

  2. Tools: Software to support the creation, delivery, use and improvement of open learning content including searching and organisation of content, content and learning management systems, content development tools, and on-line learning communities.

  3. Implementation resources: Intellectual property licenses to promote open publishing of materials, design-principles, and localisation of content.

  4. Instructors: Teachers, Lecturers, professors.

  1. 2,3 and 4

  2. 1 and 2

  3. 1,2 and 3

  4. None

Question 41 : Which of the following statements below best represents reasons why community media may be more useful media channel for SME wanting to promote their goods and services?

  1. Community media doesn’t charge or levy local people wishing to promote their services

  2. Community media is much more trusted than national broadcasters

  3. Customers tend to view SMEs that work with community much more favorably

  4. Community media’s commitment to local development tend to lend support to local businesses


Question 42 : When you lease a space for an office, technical support shop or warehouse, how do you protect yourself from being tied into a lease even if you have outgrown the space?

  1. Become personal friends with your landlord.

  2. Plan to add space if necessary at a remote location.

  3. Provide for this contingency in your lease.

  4. Plan to sublease your premises and relocate to larger quarters.


Question 43 : Which statement best describes FOSS/FLOSS?

  1. FOSS applications are not owned by anyone.

  2. FOSS has the freedom to use, understand, modify and distribute software.

  3. FOSS is anti-copyright.

  4. FOSS is just a software or a software development method.

Question 44 : Trainers should see training as a stage production: which of the following is not part of the stage production aspects?

  1. There is the audience (participants)

  2. There is a stage (training room)

  3. The performance by the audience (Shouting)

  4. The performance by the actor(trainer conducting the course)

Question 45 : Which of the following is not true about doing business in FLOSS

  1. Help promote economic development

  2. Help create jobs

  3. Competing with Proprietary software

  4. Generating money using FOSS tools and services

Question 46 : Which key stakeholders will probably ask to view the business plan for a new venture

  1. Bank

  2. Tax Revenue agency

  1. Suppliers

  1. Investors

  1. 1 only

  2. 1 and 4 only

  3. 2 and 3 only

  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Question 47 : Sula is interested in FLOSS training. A friend advised him on how to identify opportunities using the any of the strategies below. According to your judgement, which one of the listed ways is the weak

  1. Identifying popular applications (e.g. by looking at downloads from and used by people and create a training for it

  2. Waiting for friends to bring news about some training opportunities

  3. Attending (either actively or passively) ICT conferences, workshops and other events such as Software Freedom Day to learn about the needs for training

  4. Subscribing to newsletters, mailing lists and participating in relevant forums to learning about their training needs

Question 48 : Most FOSS Businesses provide web-based soultion using

  1. SAJO-Sun Microsystem, Apache, Java and Oracle

  2. LNMP–Linux Ngix MySQL Perl

  3. LAMP-Linux Apache MySQL PHP

  4. ASP.NET, IIS and SQL Server

Question 49 : Why are small businesses important to a countrys economy

  1. They provide employment

  2. They can provide specialist support to larger companies

  3. They can be innovators of new products

  1. They provide competition to large companies

  1. 1,2 and 3 only

  2. 1 only

  3. 1,2,3 and 4

  4. 1 and 3 only

Question 50 : Below are some of the winning combinations of an "ideal" FLOSS trainer. Which one is not?

  1. Winning personality and ability to communicate.

  2. Practical experience in FLOSS applications

  3. Ability to program in Java and Visual Basics

  4. Should be a Certified Technical Trainer (CTT+) certified


Final Quiz For all the Modules



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